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Trench Rescue: Principles and Practice to NFPA 1006 and 1670

$98.95

Description

Trench Rescue: Principles and Practice to NFPA 1006 and 1670 Digital Advantage Package includes: 
ContentInstructionStudent Learning Materials
TextbookAssessmentsFlashcards*
 eBookAnalytics
Slides
*Available in most packages; contact us to confirm availability.

Trench Rescue: Principles and Practice to NFPA 1006 and 1670 is the most comprehensive trench rescue resource on the market, delivering updated information on soil assessment, trench protection, shoring techniques, and more. The Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive introduction to trench rescue, focusing on the knowledge and skills required to effectively and safely perform rescues.

Global updates include:

  • Separation of Awareness, Operations, and Technician level content helps readers easily access relevant content
  • Detailed, step-by-step instructions and visuals highlight how critical skills are performed
  • Prescriptive shoring designs created by a professional engineer provide safe and efficient solutions to swiftly apply in an emergency
  • From foundational knowledge to skills application, safety concerns are reinforced throughout the text to help keep responders free from harm during actual rescues
Table of Contents

Skill Drills xii

Acknowledgments xiii

About the Authors xv

Foreword xvii

Section 1 Awareness Level 1

Chapter 1 Introduction to Trench Rescue 2

Introduction 3

Incidence of Trench Collapse 4

OSHA CFR 1926 Subpart P, Excavations 5

OSHA and Trench Rescue 5

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 6

NFPA 1670: Trench Rescue Levels 7

Awareness Level 7

Operations Level 7

Technician Level 8

Soil Basics and Collapse Mechanics 9

Trench Rescue Response Systems 9

Trench and Excavation Hazards 10

Sample OSHA Safety Measures 11

Collapse (Cave-In) 11

Falling Objects 11

Fall Hazards 11

Utility Hazards 11

Hazardous Atmospheres 12

Physical Hazards 12

Ingress or Egress 15

Chapter 2 Soil and Collapse Mechanics 17

Introduction 18

OSHA-29 CFR 1926.651 and 1926.652 19

OSHA Soil Classification 19

Stable Rock 21

Type A 21

Type B 21

Type C 22

Other Soil Classifications 22

Soil Mechanics 22

Soil Types 22

Forces Associated with Soil 22

Vertical Force 22

Horizontal Force 25

Soil Strength 25

Soil Friction 25

Cohesion 26

Moisture Content 27

Unconfined Compressive Strength 27

Trench Collapse 27

Types of Trench Collapse 27

Spoil Pile Slide 27

Lip Shear Failures 28

Slough Failure 29

Rotational Failures 29

Toe Failure 30

Wall Shear Failures 30

Wedge Failures 31

Collapse Patterns 32

Conditions and Factors That Lead to Collapse 33

Water 33

Water Table 33

Severe Environmental Conditions 33

Varying Soil Profiles 34

Disturbed Soils 34

Superimposed (Surcharge) Loads 34

Vibration 35

Signs of Impending Collapse 35

Visible Cracks 36

Visible Bulging on Walls or Floors 36

Water 36

Undercut or Blown Out Trench Walls 36

Chapter 3 Initial Actions 42

Introduction 43

Scene Management 43

Incident Command 43

Command Post 44

Staging Area 44

Standard Operating Guidelines (SOGs) and Incident Action Plans 45

Developing the Incident Action Plan 45

Size-Up 46

Situation Assessment 46

Dispatch Information 46

Initial Assessments 47

Interview Techniques 47

Classifying the Emergency 47

Hazard Assessment 47

Victim Assessment 48

Trench Assessment 49

Resource Assessment 50

Determine the Scope of the Rescue 51

Evaluation 51

Summon Resources 52

Tier 1 Response 52

Tier 2 Resources 52

Site Control 53

Shut Down Traffic 53

Establish Operational Zones 53

Prepare the Site for Incoming Resources 55

Hazard Management 55

Defensive Measures 55

Defensive Mitigation Actions for Underground Utilities 56

Unbroken Utility Lines 56

Nonentry Rescue and Victim Self-Rescue 57

Nonentry Rescue 61

Chapter 4 Personal Protective Equipment and Equipment Basics 64

Introduction 65

The Importance of Proper Equipment 65

Development of a Safety Culture 66

Personal Protective Equipment for Trench Rescue 66

Personal-Issue PPE 66

Torso, Arm, and Leg Protection (Coat and Trouser or Coverall) 66

Head Protection (Helmet) 66

Hand Protection (Gloves) 67

Foot Protection (Boots) 68

Eye Protection (Safety Glasses) 68

Firefighting Turnout Gear 69

Team-Issued PPE 69

Respiratory Protection 69

Hearing Protection 69

Cutting Tool Protection 69

Trench Rescue Shoring Equipment Overview 70

Lip Protection 70

Lip Protection Best Practices 72

Trench Rescue Panels 72

How Panels Work 73

Panel Materials 74

Best Practices for Panels 74

Panel Ropes 75

Wales 76

Best Practices for Wales 76

Wale Hangers 78

Wale Ropes 78

Backfill 78

Backfill Options 78

Struts 80

Best Practices for Struts 81

Pneumatic Struts 81

Timber Struts 81

Screw Jack Struts 82

Hydraulic Struts 82

Tools and Appliances 83

Strut Collar Locking Tools 83

Tape Measure and Angle Finder 83

Pike Poles 84

Pickets and Sledge Hammers 84

Shovels 84

Hammers and Nails 84

Chainsaw 85

Ventilation Equipment 85

Ladders 85

Scene Lighting 85

Dewatering Devices 85

Utility Control 86

Victim Removal Equipment 86

Lifting and Stabilizing Heavy Objects 86

Rapid intervention Team Equipment 86

Cutting Station 86

Section 2 Operations Level 93

Chapter 5 Hazard Mitigation 94

Introduction 95

Hazard Identification 95

Types of Hazards 95

Trench Collapse 95

Utilities 96

Traffic 96

Physical Hazards 97

Water 97

Severe Environmental Conditions 97

Biological Hazards 97

Hazardous Materials 97

Atmospheric 97

Hazard Control Plan 98

Hazard Mitigation PPE 98

Briefing 98

Hazard Mitigation 99

Hazard Control Equipment 99

Atmospheric Testing Equipment 99

Dewatering Devices 100

Sewer and Water Control Equipment 100

Electric Control Equipment 101

Ventilation Equipment 101

Natural Gas Control Equipment 102

Potential Offensive Mitigation Techniques 102

Atmospheric Monitoring 102

Dewatering Devices 102

Underground Electrical Wires 106

Gas 106

Ventilation 106

Rescue Ventilation 107

Hazardous Materials 107

Severe Environmental Conditions 107

Enhanced Hazard Mitigation 113

Ongoing Hazard Mitigation 113

Chapter 6 Managing the Trench Incident 115

Introduction 116

Size-Up 116

Size-Up and Expanding the Incident Command Structure 117

Command 117

Logistics 118

Operations 119

Incident Management Tools 120

Incident Termination 121

Chapter 7 Operations Level Trench Rescue Shoring 127

Introduction 128

The History of Trench Rescue Shoring 129

Comparing Rescue Shoring to Construction Shoring 129

Purpose 129

Soil Conditions 129

Time 130

Planning 130

Principles of Trench Rescue Shoring 131

Trench Rescue Shoring Essentials 131

Collect/Distribute Loads 131

Transfer Loads (Struts) 132

Resist Loads 132

Lateral Soil Forces and Firefighters 132

T-L Method 133

Soil Classification 133

Soil Forces 133

How To Use The T-L Method for Trench Rescue 134

Surcharge Loads (ScL) 135

Determining the Spoil Pile Surcharge 135

Adding the Spoil Pile Surcharge 135

Determining the Equipment Surcharge 136

Adding the Equipment Surcharge 136

Trench Depth to L Conversion 136

T-L Method in Action 136

Tabulated Data for Shoring Equipment 137

Prescriptive Shoring Designs 144

Criteria for Safe Zone in a Trench 144

Trench Rescue Shoring Plan 145

Shoring Plan Briefing 145

Procedure for the Trench Rescue Shoring Plan 145

Step 1: Trench Size-Up 145

Step 2: Primary Shoring 147

Step 3: Secondary Shoring 147

Step 4: Complete Shoring 147

Step 5: Shoring Performance Assessment 147

Emergency Procedures 147

Trench Rescue Equipment 147

Struts 148

Strut Force 148

Pneumatic Struts 149

Pneumatic Strut Pressure 149

Pneumatic Strut Placement 150

Pneumatic Strut Spacing 150

Hydraulic Struts 150

Screw Jack Struts 150

Timber Struts 151

Timber Strut Placement 151

Timber Strut Activation Forces 151

Trench Rescue Panels 152

Wales 153

Shoring Voids 154

Void Assessments 154

Shielding Systems 155

Practices of Trench Rescue Shoring 156

Lip Protection 157

Trench Rescue Shoring 160

Entry Shoring Overview 161

Non-entry Shoring Overview 162

Panel Installation 163

Installing Pneumatic Shores-Non-Entry 167

Installing Pneumatic Shores-Entry 167

Installing Timber Shores 171

Installing Inside Wales 172

Shoring Voids 174

Air Bag Backfill 174

Wood Backfill 175

Buttress 175

Soil Backfill 176

Open Lip Void Shoring Procedure with Entry Techniques 176

Shoring System Disassembly and Removal 176

Removal Methods 177

Machine Removal 177

Manual Removal 177

Machine Tear Out 178

Shoring System Disassembly/Removal Plan 178

Assessment 178

Briefing 178

Machine Removal 178

Personnel 178

Chapter 8 Victim Care and Extrication 185

Introduction 186

Mechanism of Injury 186

Cave-In Incidents 186

Incidents Without a Cave-In 187

Non-entry Rescue and Victim Self-Rescue 187

Entry Operations 189

Pre-entry Briefing 189

Personal Protective Equipment for Entry Team Operations 189

Entry Team Duties 189

Extrication 189

Soil Entrapment 190

Vacuum Systems 191

Vacuum Trucks 191

Vacuum Truck Response 193

Operations 193

Victim Care Considerations 194

Providing Victim Care 197

Victim Assessment and Initial Care 197

Victim Stabilization 198

Victim Care Involving a Collapse 198

Special Considerations 199

Removing a Victim from a Trench 201

Victim Packaging Equipment 202

Victim Harness 202

Litter Basket 202

Section 3 Technician Level 205

Chapter 9 Lifting and Load Stabilization 206

Introduction 207

Lifting Mechanics 207

Levers 209

Pulleys 209

Rope-Based Systems 210

Basic Techniques 210

Load Assessment 210

Weight 210

Type of Material 210

Center of Gravity 210

Forces Acting on the Load 212

Hazards Associated with Heavy Objects 212

Load Stabilization 213

Mechanics of Load Stabilization 213

Stabilization Plan 214

Compression-Based Stabilization 214

Cribbing 214

Box Crib System 214

Cribbing Rules 215

Cribbing Details 215

Cribbing Angled Objects 216

Wedges and Shims 216

Struts 216

Wheel Chocks 217

Tension-Based Stabilization 217

Inspecting Stabilization Equipment 218

Inspecting Pneumatic Struts 218

Inspecting Tiebacks 218

Synthetic Rope 218

Webbing Inspection 218

Lever Hoist Inspection 218

Inspecting Rigging Equipment 219

Wire Rope Inspection 219

Synthetic Web Slings and Polyester Round Sling Inspection 219

Alloy Steel Chain Slings Inspection 219

Rigging Hardware: Hook, Shackle, Turnbuckle, and Carabiner Inspection 219

Lifting Plan 219

Lifting Techniques 220

Surface-Based Lifting Techniques 220

Types of Surface-Based Lifting Tools 220

Lifting Tool Capacities 220

Surface-Based Lifting Tool Inspection 221

Overhead Lifting Techniques 222

Critical Angles 222

Types of Overhead Lifts Used for Trench Rescues 224

Performing Bridge Lifts 225

Lifting Bridge Capacities 225

Air Bag Bridge Lift 225

Performing Bipod Lifts 225

Bipod Components 226

Bipod Capacities 226

Hand Signals for Bridge Lifts and Bipod Lifts 226

Overhead Lifting Tools 226

Coordinating the Use of Heavy Equipment 226

Equipment Operator 227

Communications 227

Heavy Equipment Terminology 227

Lifting Capacities 228

Hand Signals Needed for Heavy Equipment Lifting 228

Chapter 10 Technician Level Trench Rescue Shoring 235

Introduction 236

Intersecting Trenches 237

Deep Trenches 237

Sheeting and Shoring for the Technician Level 238

Supplemental Sheeting and Shoring 238

Spot Shoring 238

Rescue Plan 238

Risk versus Benefit Analysis 238

Shoring Plan 238

Shoring Performance Assessment 239

Victim Release 239

Path for Removal 239

Pre-entry Briefing 239

Shoring Intersecting Trenches 239

Plan Application for an Intersecting Trench 242

Precautions for an Intersecting Trench 242

Preparation to Stabilize an Intersecting Trench 242

Intersecting Trench-Specific Shoring Equipment 243

Standard Shoring Equipment for Intersecting Trenches 243

Personnel for Intersecting Trenches 243

L-Trench Shoring Plan 243

Shoring Size-Up for an Intersecting Trench 244

Walkthrough of Shoring a L-Trench 244

Primary Shoring 244

Secondary Shoring 245

Expand the Safe Zone 246

Putting It All Together: Shoring the L-Trench 246

T-Trench Shoring Plan 246

Walkthrough of Shoring a T-Trench 250

Primary Shoring 250

Secondary Shoring 251

Complete the Shoring 252

Putting It All Together: Shoring a T-Trench 252

Deep Trench 260

Application for Deep Trenches 260

Precautions for Deep Trenches 260

Preparation Tasks for Shoring Deep Trenches 260

Shoring Equipment for Deep Trenches 260

Personnel for Deep Trenches 261

Shoring Plan for a Deep Trench 261

Size-Up 261

Walkthrough of Shoring a Deep Trench 261

Primary Shoring 261

Primary Shoring (Top Panel Set) 261

Secondary Shoring (Bottom Panels) 262

Secondary Shoring (Top Panels) 262

Complete Shoring 263

Putting It All Together: Shoring a Deep Trench 263

Utilizing Supplemental Shoring 263

Application for Supplemental Shoring 267

Precautions for Supplemental Shoring 268

Preparation for Supplemental Shoring 268

Walkthrough of Installing Supplemental Shoring 268

Putting It All Together: Supplemental Shoring 268

Spot Shoring 269

Single-Point Shoring 270

Severe Environmental Conditions 270

Victim Removal Review 271

Appendix A Advanced Trench Rescue Shoring 274

Appendix B NFPA 1006 and 1670 Correlation Guide 298

Appendix C T-L Method – A Metric Guide 304

Glossary 313

Index 318

 

About The Author

Ron Zawlocki began his fire service career in 1974 with the Detroit Fire Department. In 1977 he joined the City of Pontiac Fire Department and retired as a Battalion Chief in 2007. Chief Zawlocki holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in secondary education. He has served on local, state and national committees on firefighter safety and technical rescue. Ron Zawlocki is a lead instructor and Rescue Course Manager with Michigan State University and is the Trench Rescue Program Manager with the MUSAR Training Foundation. He serves as a Rescue Team Manager with MI-TF1 which is a state (SUSAR) urban search and rescue task force. Chief “Z” has taught fire and rescue courses throughout the Unit ed States, Canada, Mexico and the Middle East for more than two decades. He has developed several technical rescue training programs, authored course textbooks and has been published in national fire/ rescue service magazines.

Additional information

Weight1.38 lbs
Dimensions8.4 × 0.6 × 10.7 in
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